• The role of tRNA-derived small RNAs in aging

    Biogenesis of tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs). Intron (yellow), 5’-reader (green), and 3’-trailer sequences (brown) are cleaved from pre-tRNAs to generate mature tRNAs. Angiogenin (ANG) in mammals and Ribonuclease-T2 like 1 (Rny1) in yeast cleave nucleotides in the anticodon loops (red) of tRNAs to generate 30-40 nucleotide-long tRNA-derived stress-induced RNAs (tiRNAs), also known as tRNA halves. Despite controversy, DICER, ANG, and RNase T1 were shown to cleave nucleotides in the pseudouridine (T) - or dihydrouridine (D) -loops (blue) of tRNAs to generate 5’- and 3’-tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs), 14-30 nucleotides in length. Internal-tRFs (i-tRFs) are generated by multiple cleavages of tRNAs, and contain internal regions of tRNAs, which are 15-36 nucleotides in length.
  • Signaling pathways underlying nitrogen transport and metabolism in plants

    N uptake and signaling pathway in plants. Plants uptake nitrate (NO3) through NRT transporters. NRT1.1 is dual affinity nitrate transporter, whose affinity is changed by phosphorylation through CIPK23 and CBL1/9. In addition to nitrate uptake, NRT1.1 generates calcium (Ca2+) signaling through Phospholipase c (PLC). Ca2+ induces CPK-dependent phosphorylation of NLP6/7 transcription factors, leading to nuclear accumulation of NLP6/7. HBI also accelerates nuclear accumulation of NLP6/7 by reducing cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Nuclear localized NLP6/7 interact with NRG2 and TCP20 to activate expression of N-responsive genes. NLP2, ANR1, and TGA1/4 act as positive regulator for N-responsive genes. In contrast, LBDs, NIGT1, and IWS1 negatively regulate expression of N-responsive genes. NRT2.1 is a high affinity nitrate transporter, and phosphorylation inactivates NRT2.1 under high N conditions. NRT2.1 phosphorylation was removed by CEPD-induced phosphatase (CEPH) under N starvation condition, activating NRT2.1 dependent nitrate uptake. Ammonium transporter 1;1 (AMT1;1) is responsible for ammonium (NH4+) uptake. AMT1;1 is inactivated by phosphorylation through CIPK23 and ACTPK1 under high NH4+ conditions to inhibit toxic accumulation of NH4+ in cells. The figure was created with Biorender.com.
  • PROM1-mediated cell signal transduction in cancer stem cells and hepatocytes

    PROM1 cell signaling in cancer. The first intracellular domain of PROM1 promotes WNT-β-Catenin signaling pathway and tumorigenesis by interacting with HDAC6 (37). The C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of PROM1 activates PI3K-AKT signaling pathway and tumorigenesis by interacting with PI3K p85 (41). CSC, cancer stem cell.
  • Engineered adult stem cells: a promising tool for anti-cancer therapy

    Overview of the ASCs mediated anti-cancer treatments. ASCs mediated anti-cancer therapies are differentiated according to the use of MSCs, NSCs, and HSCs. Both MSCs and NSCs use the same carrier to deliver anti-cancer substances such as prodrug, oncolytic virus, exosomes, cytokines and photothermal heat. Viral transduced HSCs are localized in the bone marrow, and produce T cell progenitors that undergo normal immune cell maturation. Subsequently, immune cells expressing TCR that recognizes cancer-associated antigen, confer specific anti-cancer activity for a long time. Conjugation between HSCs and platelet adequately delivers immune checkpoint inhibitors to the bone marrow, and augments an anti-leukemia immune response.

BMB Reports 2023; 56(2): 49~131
Invited Mini Reviews
The role of tRNA-derived small RNAs in aging
Seokjun G. Ha & Seung-Jae V. Lee
BMB Reports 2023; 56(2): 49-55  https://doi.org/10.5483/BMBRep.2022-0199
Signaling pathways underlying nitrogen transport and metabolism in plants
Su Jeong Choi, Zion Lee, Eui Jeong, Sohyun Kim, Jun Sung Seo, Taeyoung Um & Jae Sung Shim
BMB Reports 2023; 56(2): 56-64  https://doi.org/10.5483/BMBRep.2022-0178
PROM1-mediated cell signal transduction in cancer stem cells and hepatocytes
Myeong-Suk Bahn & Young-Gyu Ko
BMB Reports 2023; 56(2): 65-70  https://doi.org/10.5483/BMBRep.2022-0203
Contributed Mini Review
Engineered adult stem cells: a promising tool for anti-cancer therapy
Youngdong Choi , Hong Kyu Lee & Kyung-Chul Choi
BMB Reports 2023; 56(2): 71-77  https://doi.org/10.5483/BMBRep.2022-0091
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α inhibitor induces cell death via suppression of BCR-ABL1 and Met expression in BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor sensitive and resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells
Masanobu Tsubaki , Tomoya Takeda, Takuya Matsuda, Akihiro Kimura, Remi Tanaka, Sakiko Nagayoshi, Tadafumi Hoshida, Kazufumi Tanabe & Shozo Nishida
BMB Reports 2023; 56(2): 78-83  https://doi.org/10.5483/BMBRep.2022-0095
AMPK-induced mitochondrial biogenesis decelerates retinal pigment epithelial cell degeneration under nutrient starvation
Yujin Park , Yeeun Jeong , Sumin Son & Dong-Eun Kim
BMB Reports 2023; 56(2): 84-89  https://doi.org/10.5483/BMBRep.2022-0125
Primary astrocytic mitochondrial transplantation ameliorates ischemic stroke
Eun-Hye Lee, Minkyung Kim, Seung Hwan Ko, Chun-Hyung Kim, Minhyung Lee & Chang-Hwan Park
BMB Reports 2023; 56(2): 90-95  https://doi.org/10.5483/BMBRep.2022-0108
Particulate matter induces ferroptosis by accumulating iron and dysregulating the antioxidant system
Minkyung Park, Young-Lai Cho, Yumin Choi, Jeong-Ki Min, Young-Jun Park, Sung-Jin Yoon, Dae-Soo Kim, Mi-Young Son, Su Wol Chung, Heedoo Lee & Seon-Jin Lee
BMB Reports 2023; 56(2): 96-101  https://doi.org/10.5483/BMBRep.2022-0139
Elevated expression of exogenous RAD51 enhances the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing efficiency
Seo Jung Park, Seobin Yoon , Eui-Hwan Choi, Hana Hyeon, Kangseok Lee & Keun Pil Kim
BMB Reports 2023; 56(2): 102-107  https://doi.org/10.5483/BMBRep.2022-0149
α-Kleisin subunit of cohesin preserves the genome integrity of embryonic stem cells
Seobin Yoon , Eui-Hwan Choi, Seo Jung Park & Keun Pil Kim
BMB Reports 2023; 56(2): 108-113  https://doi.org/10.5483/BMBRep.2022-0106
Therapeutic effects of selective p300 histone acetyl-transferase inhibitor on liver fibrosis
Hyunsik Kim, Soo-Yeon Park, Soo Yeon Lee, Jae-Hwan Kwon, Seunghee Byun, Mi Jeong Kim, Sungryul Yu, Jung-Yoon Yoo & Ho-Geun Yoon
BMB Reports 2023; 56(2): 114-119  https://doi.org/10.5483/BMBRep.2022-0188
KPNA3 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition by regulating TGF-β and AKT signaling pathways in MDA-MB-231, a triple-negative breast cancer cell line
Jaesung Choi, Jee-Hye Choi , Ho Woon Lee, Dongbeom Seo, Gavaachimed Lkhagvasuren, Jung-Woong Kim, Sang-Beom Seo, Kangseok Lee & Kwang-Ho Lee
BMB Reports 2023; 56(2): 120-125  https://doi.org/10.5483/BMBRep.2022-0180
The couple of netrin-1/α-Synuclein regulates the survival of dopaminergic neurons via α-Synuclein disaggregation
Eun Ji Kang , Seung Min Jang , Ye Ji Lee , Ye Ji Jeong , You Jin Kim, Seong Su Kang & Eun Hee Ahn
BMB Reports 2023; 56(2): 126-131  https://doi.org/10.5483/BMBRep.2023-0004


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February 2023
Volume 56
Issue 2

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