Mechanical forces and mechanosensors in cancer cells. As cancer progresses in the TME, the substrate rigidity of the ECM is elevated as well as the solid stress and tensile force are enhanced. Shear stress is also induced by vascular leakage and interstitial fluid flow. Altered microenvironment induced mechanical forces can be perceived by mechanosensors such as integrin, TRP family, Piezo, GPCRs, and caveolae on the membrane of cancer cells. The extrinsic signals detected by these sensors are converted into biochemical signals which promote migration and metastasis of cancer cell through signal transduction cascade.