Investigation of gene expression level among netrin-1, -3, and -4 from PD patients and non-PD (healthy control). (A) Netrin-1 (left), -3, (middle), and -4 (right) gene expression profiling by mRNA of SN from PD and healthy controls through GEO database profiling, accessed with GDS2821. Unpaired t-test, **P < 0.01; N.S., not significant. (B-D) Human protein interaction map from (http://www.genemania.org). Each network was visualized with red line (physical interactions). (E) Netrin-1, -3, and -4 gene expression data from 3 healthy adults brains. Microarray data were come from Allen Human Brain Atlas. Codes at the right of the heatmap are probes used in the analysis. MRI images including expression level at SNc part, detected with the same probe, are below the microarray data.