Overview of the ASCs mediated anti-cancer treatments. ASCs mediated anti-cancer therapies are differentiated according to the use of MSCs, NSCs, and HSCs. Both MSCs and NSCs use the same carrier to deliver anti-cancer substances such as prodrug, oncolytic virus, exosomes, cytokines and photothermal heat. Viral transduced HSCs are localized in the bone marrow, and produce T cell progenitors that undergo normal immune cell maturation. Subsequently, immune cells expressing TCR that recognizes cancer-associated antigen, confer specific anti-cancer activity for a long time. Conjugation between HSCs and platelet adequately delivers immune checkpoint inhibitors to the bone marrow, and augments an anti-leukemia immune response.