Effects of early exercise on protein levels related to TBI-induced injury. (A) The expression of GFAP, PDP9.5, NSE, HSP70, and S100β was detected by immune blot analysis 3, 7, and 14 days after TBI, and the β-actin was used as a loading control. (B) The intensity of the bands was quantified using Image J software and then normalized with β-actin. Data are shown as mean ± SE of the three independent experiments. *P < 0.05 versus TBI group. (C) The histological comparison of brain injury marker expression was performed on sham, TBI, and TBI-E brain tissue. The histological sections of brain tissues were stained with antibodies against GFAP, NSE, and S100β. Scale bar, 100 μm. (D) The protein expression of the brain injury markers was presented as the number of positive cells per high power field (HPF). The values shown here are mean ± SE. *P < 0.05.