Early exercise therapy improves locomotion performance after TBI. (A) A timeline showing the establishment of a mouse model of TBI, early exercise therapy, and the assessment of motor and memory function through rotarod, Y-maze, and passive avoidance tests. (B) The rotarod tests were performed up to 14 days following the induction of TBI in order to evaluate motor function. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 versus TBI group (sham, n = 6; TBI, n = 7; TBI-E, n = 7). (C, D) The memory functions were measured through passive avoidance and Y-maze tests performed after TBI. (E) The time-dependent alterations in rat bodyweight after TBI.