Impaired efferocytosis and neutrophil death trigger prolonged inflammation. An inflammatory milieu can disrupt apoptosis of neutrophils and make the immune response chronic. (A) A sustained neutrophil life exposed to inflammatory cytokines and other programmed neutrophil deaths, NETosis, secondary necrosis, and ferroptosis. (B) Activation of inflammatory macrophages (Mφ), dendritic cells (DC), and antigen-presenting cell (APC)-like neutrophils. (C) Activation of adaptive immune systems and chronic disease.