mtDNA mutations in patients with ND- and T2D-iPSCs. (A) The number of mtDNA mutations in iPSC clones derived from patients with ND and T2D. There were no significant differences between ND and T2D. (B) The proportion of iPSCs with and without mtDNA mutations in ND and T2D. n = the number of iPSC clones. (C) Heteroplasmy proportion of whole mtDNA mutations in iPSCs. The proportion of homoplasmic mutations was only 8% in ND compared to 37% in T2D. N = the number of mtDNA mutations (D) Heteroplasmy distribution of mtDNA mutations found in ND and T2D. The heteroplasmy of mutations found in T2D was higher than that of ND (*P < 0.05). (E) Probability of obtaining iPSCs with homoplasmic mtDNA mutations. iPSC clones with homoplasmy were found with a probability of 7% in ND and 24% in T2D. (F) Distribution of mtDNA mutations in ND and T2D. The ratio of mutations in the RNA region was higher in T2D than in ND (23% vs. 8%). iPSC: induced pluripotent stem cell; mtDNA: mitochondrial DNA; ND: non-diabetes; T2D: type 2 diabetes.