2-Undecanone stimulates neutrophils in a Gai and PLC pathway. (A) Mouse neutrophils were applied to multi-well Boyden cham-bers containing different concentrations of 2-undecanone for 90 min to check in vitro chemotaxis. (B) In vivo migration of neutrophils into the peritoneum of vehicle and 2-undecanone (4 mg/kg). After 2 h of intraperitoneal injection, peritoneal cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. (C) 2-Undecanone (200 μM) was administrated to neutrophils for the degranulation assay. (D) Cellular ROS was measured by DCF-DA for 1 h. (E) In vitro chemotaxis with PTX treatment towards 2-undecanone. (F) Relative cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations were expressed as fluorescence ratios (340:380 nm). (G) Neutrophils were stimulated with 2-undecanone (200 μM) for various lengths of time. The levels of p-ERK, t-ERK, p-Akt, t-Akt, and β-actin were measured using Western blot analysis. The data are representative of three independent experiments. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01 by Student’s t-test (A, B right, C, D right) and by two-way ANOVA (E).