The overall scheme of transglutaminase-mediated ubiquitination of Ube2N and structural comparison of MavC and MvcA. (A) Transglutaminase-induced Ube2N ubiquitination mechanism. MavC (Lpg2147) binds to activated Ube2N-Ub. Intramolecular transglutamination generates an isopeptide bond between the Gln40 of ubiquitin and the Lys92 of Ube2N. MvcA (Lpg2148) specifically cleaves Ub from the Ube2N-Ub produced by MavC. (B) Structural comparison of MavC (PDB ID:5TSC), MvcA (PDB ID:6K11), and cif (PDB ID:4F8C). Catalytic cysteines are color-coded in red.