Structures of canonical ubiquitin system-related Legionella effectors. Structures of effectors that participate in or regulate canonical ubiquitin systems are presented. (A) Crystal structures of LubX (PDB:4WZ3), LubX U-Box-1 (PDB:4WZ3), LubX U-Box-2 (PDB:4XI1), and human UBE4B U box (PDB:3L1Z) are shown (from left to right, respectively). Superimposed structures of LubX U-box-1/2 and human UBE4M U-box are shown on the right. (B) Crystal structures of LotA OTU1 (PDB:7F9X), LotB (PDB:6KS5), and LotC (PDB:6YK8) are presented. The conserved OTU catalytic core is depicted as green, and the extra helical lobe (EHL) is yellow. (C) Complex crystal structures of RavD:di-ubiquitin (PDB:6NJD) and hOTULIN:di-ubiquitin (PDB:3ZNV).