Type 1 immunity and metabolism. (A) Metabolic regulation of type 1 immune function. Glycolysis promotes and OXPHOS inhibits M1 macrophage polarization. Both glycolysis and OXPHOS metabolic pathway (aerobic glycolysis) support Th1 differentiation and function. (B) Type 1 immune regulation of metabolic function. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 provoke systemic insulin resistance. IL-6 induce lipid oxidation in muscles. Type 1 interferon inhibits insulin resistance and obesity. Type 1 interferon promotes glucose uptake in embryonic fibroblast and fatty acid oxidation in plasmacytoid DC.