Various applications of BBB-on-a-chip. (A) Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can be modeled with BBB-on-a-chip. For example, AD-mimicking microenvironment can be reconstituted on the BBB-on-a-chip. Pathological features such as beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition can be observed at the BBB. Adapted with permission from Shin et al. (53). Copyright (2019) WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. (B) Infectious disease model in an NVU chip. For example, infection of Cryptococcus neoformans has been modeled in a BBB-on-a-chip and neurotropism of the fungus has been elucidated with a multi-organ chip design. Adapted with permission from Kim et al. (59). Copyright (2021) Springer Nature. (C) Brain cancer can be recapitulated with co-culture of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in BBB-on-a-chip to observe different drug responses based on the interaction of the BBB with brain cancer. Adapted with permission from Seo et al. (40). Copyright (2021) Wiley-VCH GmbH. (D) Transport mechanisms are better studied using BBB-on-a-chip. For example, lipoprotein receptor-mediated transcytosis can be demonstrated with the introduction of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mimetic nanoparticles to BBB-on-a-chip. Adapted with permission from Ahn et al. (64). Copyright (2020) Springer Nature.