IC/BPS Pathophysiology. GAG, glycosaminoglycan; UTI, urinary tract infections; NGF, nerve growth factor; IL-6, interleukin-6; CNS, Central nervous system. The figure is reproduced from the article by Dayem et al. 2020 (16). This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CCBY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).