Induction of periodontitis and serological biochemical analysis in blood samples. (A) Mice were divided into 5 groups: NC, NC-p.g., HFD, HFD-p.g., and HFD-p.g.(P.O.). Mice were maintained on HFD for 16 weeks, and periodontitis was induced by P. gingivalis infection of the mandibular first molars or by direct administration into the stomach using a feeding needle catheter 3 times a week. (B) Measurement of body weight every 2 weeks. (C) Hemi-mandible, as reconstructed by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis, and alveolar bone loss (red area) were measured for each group. (D) Levels of glucose, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, AST, ALT, ALP, and CRP in the blood from mice of each group at 14 weeks. The results are shown as the mean ± SD. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.