Comparison of responses of CD1d−/− and CD1d+/− pMφ to LPS stimulation. CD11b- and CD11c-positive pMφ were isolated after magnetic-activated cell sorting. (A) CD1d, MHC II, and CD86 expression levels were measured using flow cytometry gated on CD11b+ I-Ab+ cells after treatments with various concentrations of LPS for 24 h. (B) Supernatants from cultured pMφ were collected after 24 h of LPS stimulation. TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were measured using ELISA. CD1d−/− (□) vs. CD1d+/− (■) macrophages; NA, no antigen stimulation. Data are representatives of four independent experiments. Differences were considered significant at ***P < 0.001; **P < 0.01; and *P < 0.05 (Student’s t-test).