Inhibitory function of myonectin on adipogenesis through the p38 MAPK pathway. (A) 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate by the MDI cocktail with or without myonectin (1 μg/ml). Western blot analyses of p-p38, p-ERK, p-JNK and CHOP during the initial time of differentiation in the absence or presence of myonectin. Total p38, total ERK and total JNK and HSP90 were presented as controls for normalization. (B, C) The ratios of p-p38 to total p38 and CHOP to HSP90. (D, E) mRNA levels and (F) protein levels of C/EBPβ and PPARγ. Each mRNA expression was normalized to Rpl32. (G, H) The ratios of C/EBPβ and PPARγ to HSP90. All quantitative data are the means ± SD (n = 3). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.005 compared to the myonectin-untreated control cells (MDI, 0 min).