Hypoxia induced TGFβ-1 expression on MSCs. (A) MSCs secrete various proteins involved in macrophage polarization. (B, C) mRNA and protein expression levels of HIF-1α and TGF-β1 are presented in MSCs treated with hypoxia. Control, MSCs treated with 10% FBS medium in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2; Nor, normoxia, MSCs treated with SF medium in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2; Hypo, hypoxia. Each experiment was repeated three times. Columns, mean; bars, SE. **P <0.01 and="" p="" 0="" 05="" and="" sup="">##P < 0.001.