Molecules released by MSC-Exos. MSC-Exos affect their targets by means of various molecules that they secrete. The MSC-Exos secrete molecules that maintain the homeostasis in the neighboring cells while also secreting glycolytic enzymes. Other molecules involved in cell growth, proliferation, and modulation of the immune response and signalling pathways are secreted by the MSC-Exos. Some membrane-bound molecules that aid in cell signalling and miRNAs with various functions are also released by MSC-Exos.