Bioinformatics analysis for clonal evolution and diversity. (A) Red dots represent mutations on CDR3 of BCR. CDR3 has the highest mutation rate that enables us to define clonotypes of B cells. (B) Due to high diversity by random SHM, shared repertoire between unrelated individuals is small. (C) Phylogenetic tree of B cell lineage reveals history of clonal evolution and origins. (D) Statistical distribution of BCR characteristics (e.g. CDR3 length, amino acid composition) shows the shape of diverse repertoires. (E) Diversity indices quantitate size and evenness of repertoires. BCR population is considered as an ecology within a body. Ecological statistics are then applied. (F) Dimensionality reduction algorithm projects repertoires in 2D or 3D. An axis represents a variance explained. Reduced dimension visualizes distance between repertoires. Italicized blue text indicates names of software and statistical tools. Red text represents concepts or indicators.