Representative diagram outlining the procedure for the generation of islet organoids from hiPSCs using a microfluidic device for 3D islet perfusion. (A) In vitro differentiation of hiPSCs into islet organoids. (B) Detailed structure of the multilayer microfluidic chip. (C) Schematic diagram illustrating the steps representing the differentiation of islet organoids on chip and under 3D culture system. This figure is reproduced from Tao et al. 2019 () with permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.