IL-32 affects both tumor growth and death by modulating immune cells. (A) IL-32 stimulates tumor and NK cells to facilitate tumor cell killing. Expression levels of NK cell target proteins, including FAS and ULBP are upregulated in IL-32α-expressing CML (upper). IL-32-expressing NK cells secrete the ligands for DR3 and TNFR2, DR3 and TNF, respectively (bottom). (B) IL-32-expressing tumor cells recruit anti-tumoral NK cells and CTLs, while IL-32 also stimulates the differentiation of immunosuppressive CD11c+ mDC and CD163+CD68+ MΦ. FASL: Fas ligand, ULBP2: UL16-binding protein 2, NKG2D: natural killer group 2D, CML: chronic myeloid leukemia, NK cell: natural killer cell, TNFR2: tumor necrosis factor receptor 2, DR3: death receptor 3, CTL: cytotoxic T lymphocytes, MΦ: macrophages, mDC: mature dendritic cells.