Characteristics of Epac2a-KO mice. (A) Tissue distribution of Epac2a. Comparison of WT and Epac2a-KO mice by fasting serum leptin levels (B, n = 4), food intake (C, n = 5), rectal temperature (D, n = 9), energy consumption (E, n = 6), and physical activity (F, n = 12). Myogenin mRNA (n = 15) and protein (n = 3) expression and cross sectional appearance (G) of the gastrocnemius muscle in WT and KO mice. H & E staining. Scale bars: 100 μm. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001 compared to WT. Data represent the mean ± SEM. GAS: gastrocnemius muscle; Hypo: hypothalamus.