BMB Rep. 2008; 41(6): 415-434  
Multiple roles of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C isozymes
Pann-Ghill Suh1,*, Jae-Il Park1, Lucia Manzoli2, Lucio Cocco2, Joanna C. Peak3, Matilda Katan3, Kiyoko Fukami4, Tohru Kataoka5, Sanguk Yun1 & Sung Ho Ryu1
1Division of Molecular and Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Korea, 2Cellular Signaling Laboratory, Department of Anatomical Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Irnerio, 48 I-40126, Bologna, Italy, 3Cancer Research UK Centre for Cell and Molecular Biology, Chester Beatty Laboratories, The Institute of Cancer Research, Fulham Road, London SW3 6JB, UK, 4Laboratory of Genome and Biosignal, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, 192-0392 Tokyo, Japan, 5Division of Molecular Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Japan
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Tel: 82-54-279-2293; Fax: 82-54-279-0645; E-mail: pgs@postech.ac.kr

Received: June 3, 2008; Published online: June 30, 2008.
© Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. All rights reserved.

Abstract
Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C is an effector molecule in the signal transduction process. It generates two second messengers, inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Currently, thirteen mammal PLC isozymes have been identified, and they are divided into six groups: PLC-beta, -gamma, -delta, -epsilon, -zeta and -eta. Sequence analysis studies demonstrated that each isozyme has more than one alternative splicing variant. PLC isozymes contain the X and Y domains that are responsible for catalytic activity. Several other domains including the PH domain, the C2 domain and EF hand motifs are involved in various biological functions of PLC isozymes as signaling proteins. The distribution of PLC isozymes is tissue and organ specific. Recent studies on isolated cells and knockout mice depleted of PLC isozymes have revealed their distinct phenotypes. Given the specificity in distribution and cellular localization, it is clear that each PLC isozyme bears a unique function in the modulation of physiological responses. In this review, we discuss the structural organization, enzymatic properties and molecular diversity of PLC splicing variants and study functional and physiological roles of each isozyme.
Keywords: Alternative splicing variant, Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, Signal transduction

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