BMB Rep. 2008; 41(10): 705-709  
Upregulation of NF-κB upon differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells
Young-Eun Kim1, Ho-Bum Kang1, Jeong-A Park1, Ki-Hoan Nam2, Hyung-Joo Kwon3,4 & Younghee Lee1,*
1Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, 2Bio-Evaluation Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Cheongwon-gun 305-333, 3Center for Medical Science Research and 4Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200-702, Korea
Correspondence to: Tel: 82-43-261-3387; Fax: 82-43-267-2306; E-mail: YHL4177@cbnu.ac.kr
Received: May 28, 2008; Accepted: June 10, 2008; Published online: October 31, 2008.
© Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. All rights reserved.

Abstract
NF-kappaB is a transcriptional regulator involved in many biological processes including proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Recently, we reported that expression and activity of NF-kappaB is comparatively low in undifferentiated human embryonic stem (ES) cells, but increases during differentiation. Here, we found a lower expression of NF-kappaB p65 protein in mouse ES cells when compared with mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Protein levels of NF-kappaB p65 and relB were clearly enhanced during retinoic acid-induced differentiation. Furthermore, increased DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB in response to TNF-alpha, an agonist of NF-kappaB signaling, was seen in differentiated but not undifferentiated mouse ES cells. Taken together with our previous data in human ES cells, it is likely that NF-kappaB expression and activity of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway is comparatively low in undifferentiated ES cells, but increases during differentiation of ES cells in general.
Keywords: Differentiation, Embryonic stem cells, Expression, NF-κB, Upregulation

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