BMB Rep. 2016; 49(5): 263-269  
MicroRNA-orchestrated pathophysiologic control in gut homeostasis and inflammation
Juneyoung Lee1,2, Eun Jeong Park1,3 & Hiroshi Kiyono1,2,4,*
1Division of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, 2Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8561, 3Department of Molecular Pathobiology and Cell Adhesion Biology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Mie University, Mie 514-8507, 4International Research and Development Center for Mucosal Vaccines, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan
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Received: February 26, 2016; Published online: May 31, 2016.
© Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. All rights reserved.

The intestine represents the largest and most elaborate immune system organ, in which dynamic and reciprocal interplay among numerous immune and epithelial cells, commensal microbiota, and external antigens contributes to establishing both homeostatic and pathologic conditions. The mechanisms that sustain gut homeostasis are pivotal in maintaining gut health in the harsh environment of the gut lumen. Intestinal epithelial cells are critical players in creating the mucosal platform for interplay between host immune cells and luminal stress inducers. Thus, knowledge of the epithelial interface between immune cells and the luminal environment is a prerequisite for a better understanding of gut homeostasis and pathophysiologies such as inflammation. In this review, we explore the importance of the epithelium in limiting or promoting gut inflammation (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease). We also introduce recent findings on how small RNAs such as microRNAs orchestrate pathophysiologic gene regulation.
Keywords: Homeostasis, Inflammation, Intestine, MicroRNA, Pathophysiology

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