BMB Rep. 2016; 49(3): 139-148  
The role of lipids in the pathogenesis and treatment of type 2 diabetes and associated co-morbidities
Derek M. Erion1, Hyun-Jun Park2 & Hui-Young Lee2,3,*
1Takeda Pharmaceuticals 350 Massachusetts Ave. Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA, 2Department of Molecular Medicine, 3Korea Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center, Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon 21999, Korea
Correspondence to: Tel: +82-32-899-6241; Fax: +82-32-899-6039; E-mail: hylee@ gachon.ac.kr
Received: December 25, 2015; Published online: March 31, 2016.
© Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. All rights reserved.

Abstract
In the past decade, the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has rapidly increased, along with the associated cardiovascular complications. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology underlying T2D, the associated complications and the impact of therapeutics on the T2D development has critical importance for current and future therapeutics. The prevailing feature of T2D is hyperglycemia due to excessive hepatic glucose production, insulin resistance, and insufficient secretion of insulin by the pancreas. These contribute to increased fatty acid influx into the liver and muscle causing accumulation of lipid metabolites. These lipid metabolites cause dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which ultimately contributes to the increased cardiovascular risk in T2D. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of hepatic insulin resistance and the specific role of liver lipids is critical in selecting and designing the most effective therapeutics for T2D and the associated co-morbidities, including dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Herein, we review the effects and molecular mechanisms of conventional anti-hyperglycemic and lipid-lowering drugs on glucose and lipid metabolism.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, Diabetic dyslipidemia, Lipid metabolites, Insulin resistance, Type 2 diabetes


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