BMB Rep. 2016; 49(1): 18-25  
Emerging roles of exosomes in cancer invasion and metastasis
Young Hwa Soung1, Thalia Nguyen2, Hans Cao2, Janet Lee2 & Jun Chung1,*
1Department of Pathology, Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook, NY 11794, 2Department of Physiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73034, USA
Correspondence to: Tel: +631-444-3000; Fax: +631-444-3424; E-mail: jun.chung@stonybrookmedicine.edu
Received: November 18, 2015; Published online: January 31, 2016.
© Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. All rights reserved.

Abstract
Recent evidence has indicated that nano-sized vesicles called “exosomes” mediate the interaction between cancer cells and their microenvironment and play a critical role in the development of cancers. Exosomes contain cargo consisting of proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and microRNAs that can be delivered to different types of cells in nascent as well as distant locations. Cancer cell-derived exosomes (CCEs) have been identified in body fluids such as urine, plasma, and saliva from patients with cancer. Although their content depends on tumor type and stage, CCEs merit consideration as prognostic and diagnostic markers, as vehicles for drug delivery, and as potential therapeutic targets because they could transport various oncogenic elements. In this review, we summarize recent advances regarding the role of CCEs in cancer invasion and metastasis, as well as its potential clinical applications.
Keywords: Exosomes, Invasion, Metastasis, Drug resistance, Biomarkers, Therapeutic application


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