BMB Rep. 2015; 48(4): 229-233  
Network of hypothalamic neurons that control appetite
Jong-Woo Sohn*
Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea
Correspondence to: Tel: +82-42-350-2631; Fax: +82-42-350-2610; E-mail: jwsohn@kaist.ac.kr
Received: October 6, 2014; Published online: April 30, 2015.
© Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. All rights reserved.

Abstract
The central nervous system (CNS) controls food intake and energy expenditure via tight coordinations between multiple neuronal populations. Specifically, two distinct neuronal populations exist in the arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus (ARH): the anorexigenic (appetite-suppressing) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons and the orexigenic (appetiteincreasing) neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons. The coordinated regulation of neuronal circuit involving these neurons is essential in properly maintaining energy balance, and any disturbance therein may result in hyperphagia/obesity or hypophagia/starvation. Thus, adequate knowledge of the POMC and NPY/AgRP neuron physiology is mandatory to understand the pathophysiology of obesity and related metabolic diseases. This review will discuss the history and recent updates on the POMC and NPY/AgRP neuronal circuits, as well as the general anorexigenic and orexigenic circuits in the CNS.
Keywords: GABA, Neuronal circuit, NPY/AgRP neuron, POMC neuron, α-MSH


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