BMB Rep. 2015; 48(4): 200-208  
Antioxidant enzymes as redox-based biomarkers: a brief review
Hee-Young Yang & Tae-Hoon Lee*
Department of Biochemistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Medical Research Center for Biomineralization Disorders, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Korea
Correspondence to: Tel: +82-62-530-4842; Fax: +82-620530-4848; E-mail: thlee83@chonnam.ac.kr
Received: October 8, 2014; Published online: April 30, 2015.
© Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. All rights reserved.

Abstract
The field of redox proteomics focuses to a large extent on analyzing cysteine oxidation in proteins under different experimental conditions and states of diseases. The identification and localization of oxidized cysteines within the cellular milieu is critical for understanding the redox regulation of proteins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, and it will in turn provide important information that are potentially useful for the development of novel strategies in the treatment and prevention of diseases associated with oxidative stress. Antioxidant enzymes that catalyze oxidation/reduction processes are able to serve as redox biomarkers in various human diseases, and they are key regulators controlling the redox state of functional proteins. Redox regulators with antioxidant properties related to active mediators, cellular organelles, and the surrounding environments are all connected within a network and are involved in diseases related to redox imbalance including cancer, ischemia/reperfusion injury, neurodegenerative diseases, as well as normal aging. In this review, we will briefly look at the selected aspects of oxidative thiol modification in antioxidant enzymes and thiol oxidation in proteins affected by redox control of antioxidant enzymes and their relation to disease.
Keywords: Antioxidant enzyme, Cysteine oxidation, Disease, ROS, Redox proteomics


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