BMB Reports : eISSN 1976-670X

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Fig. 3. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species enhance immunity. Upon pathogen infection, mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) increase immunity in C. elegans. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) mediate mtROS-induced immunity through negative and positive feedback mechanisms, respectively. Mitochondrial proline catabolism also regulates ROS levels and immunity. The intermediate metabolite produces cytosolic ROS by dual oxidase (DUOX) and activates SKN-1/Nrf, an important immune regulator. Proper communication between mitochondrial and cytosolic ROS leads to enhanced immunity against P. aeruginosa.
BMB Reports 2018;51:274~279
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